Showing posts with label chemistry. Show all posts
Showing posts with label chemistry. Show all posts
Showing posts with label chemistry. Show all posts
Showing posts with label chemistry. Show all posts

Wednesday, January 06, 2016

New Elements Discovered - Completing the Periodic Table

The elements 113, 115, 117 and 118 have finally been discovered.  Laboratories in Russia, the United States and Japan have made many claims over the years that they have discovered them. But it was only at the end of 2015 when the elements were finally given their permanent place in the periodic table. A group of scientific experts at The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), headquartered in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, announced the group’s conclusions on 30 December 2015.

The four elements were made in the lab, by colliding lighter atomic nuclei together. The unstable agglomerations of protons and neutrons lasted mere fractions of a second before they fell apart into smaller, more stable fragments.

Each of the teams have been given recognition for their great findings which means that now, they can put forward proposals  to name the new elements and assign them their two-letter symbols. A new element can be named after a range of things including; their chemical or physical properties, a mythological concept, a mineral, a place or country, or a scientist. 

Click here to read more about who gets to name the new elements!

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Sunday, October 11, 2015

What's in your Pumpkin Spice Latte? ( + A Recipe!)

Autumn is easing its way in and the leaves are turning orange and brown hues and the pumpkin spice latte is making a major comeback. So surely everyone is starting to feel it's autumn now.  The PSL is now the official symbol of autumn - forget the weather or the leaves changing colour.


Pumpkin Spice Latte Image
Anybody who has tried the PSL and tasted it knows that it doesn’t even taste of pumpkin, nor does it have any of its nutritional benefits.  A cooked, mashed cup of it has most, if not all of your daily vitamin A and a significant percentage of both your daily potassium and fibre. Recently, the autumnal drink has been in the news for its recipe, which doesn't include real pumpkin or real, natural flavours. All flavours are replaced with chemicals which make up the flavouring. The caffeinated drink now has pumpkin included in it as of this year, part of the recipe.  



Did the word “chemicals” scare you? Well, it shouldn’t. But thanks to a certain group of people, chemicals have been turned from something normal into something scary and could potentially harm our health, when in actual fact some chemicals are pretty harmless. Now let’s get back to our original topic: the chemicals in the pumpkin spice latte.

The new commercial recipe for this year is:
  • Espresso
  • Milk
  • Pumpkin Spice Flavoured Sauce (Sugar, Condensed Skim Milk, Pumpkin Puree, Contains 2% or Less of Fruit and Vegetable Juice for Colour, Natural Flavours, Annatto [Colour], Potassium Sorbate [Preservative], Salt)
  • Whipped Cream (Light Whipping Cream [Cream, Mono and Diglycerides, Carrageenan])
  • Vanilla Syrup (Sugar, Water, Natural Flavours, Potassium Sorbate [Preservative], Citric Acid)
  • Pumpkin Spice Topping (Cinnamon, Ginger, Nutmeg, Clove).

After finding out the new recipe for the infamous PSL – we can find out what chemicals go into the famous pumpkin spice sauce that makes up the taste of autumn...
Chemicals in the Pumpkin Spice Flavoured Sauce:

Carrageenan
  • This chemical is widely found in sports drinks and ready-to-drink protein shakes
  • It’s used as a thickener and is used to improve the texture of products
  • Carrageenan has been proven to be safe for use in food (and even in baby formula).
  • Carrageenan was incorrectly mistaken for the carcinogen: Polygeenan. Although their names are similar they are two completely different compounds with different purposes.  

Natural flavours

"Natural flavors in the United States are defined in 21CFR 101.22, as “the essential oil, oleoresin, essence or extractive, protein hydrolysate, distillate, or any product of roasting, heating or enzymolysis, which contains the flavoring constituents derived from a spice, fruit or fruit juice, vegetable or vegetable juice, edible yeast, herb, bark, bud, root, leaf or similar plant material, meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, dairy products, or fermentation products thereof, whose significant function in food is flavoring rather than nutritional.”  “Natural Flavors Hit the Label” 

Annatto
  • Is an orange-red food colouring derived from the seeds of the achiote tree.
  • Its scent is described as "slightly peppery with a hint of nutmeg" and flavour as "slightly nutty, sweet and peppery".[1]


Potassium sorbate
  • Potassium sorbate is a food preservative which has been used for many years.
  • Its E number is 202
  • Loads of tests have been conducted on this compound and have confirmed its safety for use in food.
  • However, there have been reports that some people may be allergic to potassium sorbate.


Citric acid
  • Is a natural preservative which can be found widely in citrus fruits.
  • Citric acid is also be added an acidic / sour taste to foods.

Vanillin and vanillin flavour
  • Artificial and natural vanilla flavours are used widely in food, derived from the pheonolic family.
  • Natural powdered vanillin is expensive compared to artificial vanillin plus artificial flavours last longer.
  • The purpose of artificial flavours is to deliver the sensory impression of a food or beverage product; note the official definition for NATURAL FLAVOUR.

Why do we need all these chemicals?
The coffee sauce flavouring is designed to taste just like cooked pumpkin spice: a blend of nutmeg, cinnamon, ginger, and cloves. The aim isn’t to taste like pumpkin but more of the spice(s).  The coffee company have used the minimum number of compounds they need to reach their signature flavour.  These chemicals are essential because it’s not sustainable to harvest the vast amounts of ginger, cinnamon, or cloves needed to match our (the consumers) appetite for pumpkin spice lattes.
If there’s one thing to be worried about, it’s the copious amounts of sugar (in total 49 grams!!) in this drink. Everyone has to take care of what goes into their body. And always remember that everything in MODERATION is good. 


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Since I’ve said the word pumpkin spice latte a million times in this post, you’re probably craving one right now so here’s a recipe which makes 2 mugs of PSL...



  • 1/2 tablespoon of ground cinnamon
  • 1 teaspoon of ground ginger
  • 1/4 teaspoon of ground cloves
  • 1/8 teaspoon of ground nutmeg
  • 2 tablespoons sugar
  • 1 tablespoon vanilla extract or half a vanilla bean
  • 2 cups full cream milk
  • 1/4 cup or espresso or strong coffee
  • 2 tablespoons canned pumpkin or homemade pumpkin puree (Here’s a simple recipe )
  • 1/4 cup heavy cream or use a whipped cream packet (Optional)

Here’s how to make homemade PSL:

If you would like whipped heavy cream until stiff peaks form or prepare your whipped cream packet according to package instructions and set aside (Optional)
  • Begin by making your espresso and split it between two mugs
  • Next, cook your pumpkin puree along with your ginger, cinnamon, cloves and nutmeg in a small saucepan over medium heat then add the sugar, stirring until the mixture turns into a syrupy consistency.
  • Add the milk to the mixture and warm over medium-low heat, then stir in your vanilla. Put your warmed milk mixture in the blender and blend until frothy.
  • Finally, add the milk mixture to your coffee and top with whipped cream and sprinkle with cinnamon.

IMAGES [1] [2] REFERENCES: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10]


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Monday, August 10, 2015

FDA Approves 1st Drug Produced By 3D Printing

For years, scientists have been searching for a way to simplify the way drugs are made, making everything computerised, with minimal human interaction as possible. Previously I have reported on a new technology called molecular printing, click HERE to read it first.

Now for the first time, the FDA has approved the first prescription drug made via the new and similar technique: 3D printing.


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Tuesday, July 28, 2015

The Chemistry of Anti-ageing Products & How They Work

On the back of any container of anti-ageing serum or cream, you read a long incomprehensible list of chemicals that you might not know what their exact roles are within the product. Below is list a top 10 ingredients that have been used in anti-ageing products that are in the market today, for you to read and know what exactly contributes to removing years of our faces.

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Monday, July 20, 2015

New research for more efficient carbon capture

Journal : Tuning Organic Carbon Dioxide Absorbents for Carbonation and Decarbonation:
Dr's: Kim, Park &  Rajamanickam
Funded by Ministry of Education. Science and Technology of the Korean Government


Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is a gas / waste product that is given off by motor engines and with it other harmful gases that affect us and affect pollution and air quality. In this new piece of research the trio of scientists have aimed to find a way to capture carbon and recycle it, from carbon dioxide and at the same time release the safe molecule oxygen (O2).

In their research the scientists have aimed to manipulate the unique chemistry of super bases for carbon capture technology. It is beneficial to be able to control the process of carbonation and decarbonation in an easily controllable manner.

·         Superbase = alkylcarbonyl salt
·         Reverse at elevated temperatures in organic solutions
·         Gives insight into the design and optimization of organic carbon dioxide absorbents
·         Improved solvent systems can significantly reduce the energy cost of regeneration which is in great demand

The scientists found that the thermal stabilities of guanidinuim alkyl carbonates (the super base) are readily tuneable by altering the concentrations of super base/protic solvent/aprotic solvent mixtures. The protic and aprotic solvents act as stabilizers and destabilizers, respectively of the alkyl carbonate salt.  The ternary mixtures are versatile CO2 capture agents whose temperatures of carbonation and decarbonation are tuneable over a wide range.  

Finally, the highly tuneable characteristics will allow the absorbents to be used for effective purification of CO2 containing mixed-gases, not just to control carbon dioxide emissions, but also be able to produce value added gases by removing CO2 impurities under anhydrous conditions. The solvent effects can have other uses in new switchable solvent /soft materials systems. 

Infographic: Click to enlarge.

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Monday, July 13, 2015

Black Phosphorus is the New Silicon

New Chemistry research:  Black phosphorus could help engineers surmount one of the big challenges for future electronics: designing energy-efficient transistors.
This is a schematic of the "puckered honeycomb" crystal structure of black phosphorus.
Credit: Vahid Tayari/McGill University

Published in the journal: Nature Communications, the researchers are utilising black phosphorus as a material to pack more transistors on a chip, making them more energy-efficient. 

The work is a result of a multidisciplinary collaboration among Szkopek's nanoelectronics research group, the nanoscience lab of McGill Physics Prof. Guillaume Gervais, and the nanostructures research group of Prof. Richard Martel in Université de Montréal's Department of Chemistry.

Reporting on their finds, the scientists at McGill University, have found that when electrons move in a phosphorus transistor, they do so only in two dimensions. This will help in designing new energy-efficient transistors.

"Transistors work more efficiently when they are thin, with electrons moving in only two dimensions," says Thomas Szkopek, an associate professor in McGill's Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and senior author of the new study. "Nothing gets thinner than a single layer of atoms." 

Eleven years ago, physicists at the University of Manchester in the U.K. first isolated and explored the remarkable properties of graphene (a one-atom-thick layer of carbon). After their great discovery, the scientists were keen to to investigate a range of other two-dimensional materials. 

One of the new materials used is black phosphorus, a form of phosphorus that is similar to graphite and can be separated easily into single atomic layers, known as phosphorene.

Phosphorene is now a growing subject of interest because it overcomes many of the problems of using graphene in electronics. Where as graphene acts like a metal, black phosphorus is a natural semiconductor and it can be readily switched on and off.

"To lower the operating voltage of transistors, and thereby reduce the heat they generate, we have to get closer and closer to designing the transistor at the atomic level," Szkopek says. "The toolbox of the future for transistor designers will require a variety of atomic-layered materials: an ideal semiconductor, an ideal metal, and an ideal dielectric. All three components must be optimized for a well designed transistor. Black phosphorus fills the semiconducting-material role."

To understand the way the electrons in a phosphrorus transistor move, the researchers looked at the electrons under the under the influence of a magnetic field in experiments performed at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee, FL, which is the largest and highest-powered magnet laboratory in the entire world. 

This research "provides important insights into the fundamental physics that dictate the behavior of black phosphorus," says Tim Murphy, DC Field Facility Director at the Florida facility.

"What's surprising in these results is that the electrons are able to be pulled into a sheet of charge which is two-dimensional, even though they occupy a volume that is several atomic layers in thickness," Szkopek says. That finding is significant because it could potentially facilitate manufacturing the material -- though at this point "no one knows how to manufacture this material on a large scale."

"There is a great emerging interest around the world in black phosphorus," Szkopek says. "We are still a long way from seeing atomic layer transistors in a commercial product, but we have now moved one step closer."


Research: http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2015/150707/ncomms8702/full/ncomms8702.html

Quotes and image from: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/07/150707082346.htm




Infographic: Click to enlarge.

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Tuesday, June 02, 2015

The Reason Behind the Blog Name - 30 Day Science Blog Challenge (Day 2)

Every blog name/title has a story behind it; some maybe more interesting than others. 

After I decided that I wanted to start a science website, I had to choose a name. At the time, I had hopes that my blog would be more chemistry driven but I also chose a title that is mixed - just like Medicinal Chemistry (what I did my Bsc in).  

A couple of ideas I had for my blog name were:

  • protons & pyrimidines
  • neutrons & nucleotides
  • electrons & enzymes
  • as sweet as glucose
  • sweeter than glucose
  • chemistry crystals
  • crystals of chemistry
  • and finally: crystals & catalysts

The name Crystals and Catalysts was derived from two things: Crystals, from the most common product chemists make in the laboratory and also the most intriguing, and Catalysts are the substances that encourage reactions to happen. 



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Monday, May 25, 2015

Radioactive bananas.... kind of

Fact: The radioactive potassium-40 emits about 15 articles of antimatter a day.



So what, exactly, is antimatter?

Antimatter is matter consisting of elementary particles which are the antiparticles of those making up normal matter.

The person who discovered antimatter was the English Physicist Paul Dirac (1902-1984). Dirac derived an equation that explains how really small and really fast things behave, such as electrons travelling near the speed of light. Later, Dirac realised that not only did his equation & theory discover the behaviour of very tiny things, he also discovered something new to the growing world of science; anti-particles. Paul Dirac continued to assert that every particle has a mirror-image particle with nearly identical properties, except for an opposite electrical charge. Similar to the way protons, neutrons and electrons combine to form atoms and matter, antiprotons, antineutrons and anti-electrons (called positrons) combine to form anti-atoms and antimatter.

His findings also led him to believe that there could exist a mirror universe of antimatter.

Everything that exists is made up of matter. Even a banana (in this example) is made of particles of matter, which is why we can see, feel & taste it. Around 15 times a day, a banana produces something called antimatter and Bang! That particle of antimatter instantaneously  vanishes in a flash of light.
When Antimatter comes into contact with matter, it immediately vanishes out of existence.

So, does that mean antimatter falls upwards?

Since gravity works the same way on all matter, but what about antimatter? Instead of matter falling down, would anti matter fall up? A CERN experiment has been discussed to try and find this but there are still questions around the theory.

And why is antimatter important?

The prediction, and subsequent discovery, of antimatter counts as a great success of physics. It represents a whole mirror world of particles, identical atoms and there could even exist an identical universe, a mirror image of the universe we live in today. Mind-blowing...
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References [1][2][3][4][5]

P.s this is my first physics related post, however I do think with the talk of atoms, electrons & protons it also fits in with chemistry, a little bit. If you liked this post please share it with the links below. Thank you! - M


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Tuesday, March 17, 2015

Saving Valuable Time: the Molecule-Making Machine

A new molecule making machine could imitate 3-D printing, making it fast, flexible and accessible to everyone. This machine can assemble small, complex molecules at the click of a mouse. This automated process has the potential to greatly speed up and enable new drug development and other technologies that rely on small molecules.

A team of chemists led by Martin D. Burke, at University of Illinois a team led by Martin D. Burke built the machine to imitate 3-D printer at a molecular level. They described the technology in a paper featured on the cover of the March 13 issue of Science.



"Small molecules" are a specific class of complex, compact chemical structures found throughout nature. They are very important in medicine -- most medications available now are small molecules -- as well as in biology as probes to uncover the inner workings of cells and tissues. But small molecules are also very difficult to produce in a laboratory, and it takes a highly experienced chemist to find out how make a certain small molecule before its properties could be understood. This makes drug research slow and hinders its development.

"Up to now, the bottleneck has been synthesis," Burke said. "There are many areas where progress is being slowed, and many molecules that pharmaceutical companies aren't even working on, because the barrier to synthesis is so high."

How do you take something very complex and make it as simple as possible?

The theory behind the machines is to break down the complex molecules into smaller building blocks that can be easily assembled.

To make the assembly process automated, Burke's group devised a simple catch-and-release method that adds one building block at a time, rinsing the excess away before adding the next one. They confirmed that their machine could build up to 14 different categories of small molecules.

"Dr. Burke's research has yielded a significant advance that helps make complex small molecule synthesis more efficient, flexible and accessible," said Miles Fabian of the National Institutes of Health's National Institute of General Medical Sciences, which partially funded the research. "It is exciting to think about the impact that continued advances in these directions will have on synthetic chemistry and life science research."

The automated synthesis technology has been licensed to REVOLUTION Medicines, Inc., a company that Burke co-founded that concentrates on creating new drugs based on small molecules found in nature. The company initially is focusing on anti-fungal medications, in which Burke's research has made a lot of progress.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y_0wC5kDN3s

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Monday, February 02, 2015

Pineapple Juice : An Excellent Catalyst for Biginelli Reaction

Pineapple is almost everyone's favorite fruit and favorite juice. but not only is it good to consume, its also great for chemical reactions and green chemistry; cleaner ways to make pharmaceutical products. 

An efficient and greener synthesis of a series of dihydropyrimidinone (DHPMs) derivatives were accomplished via three-component one-pot cyclocondensation between substituted aryl aldehydes, diketone/ke- toester and urea. This solvent free approach is totally nonpolluting having several advantages such as shorter reaction time, mild reaction conditions, simple workup and reduced environmental impact.

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Wednesday, January 14, 2015

My First Guest Post on GradJobs UK - Looking After Your Health After Graduation

(( I am very proud to announce my very first guest post on GradJobs UK!! Be sure to check it out and tell me what you think! 

You can find it here: GradJobs UK Blog: Looking after your health after graduation))


[UPDATE: The Gradjobs blog has since been removed and some posts moved to GradsCorner on Gradjobs UK website. So I have posted my guest post here for everyone to read.]






Looking after your health after graduation.


Stress. The first thing that comes to mind when thinking about stress is a person tearing their hair out and screaming in despair.  After the graduation ceremony graduates start to face the “real world”, independence and the dreaded question: “what are you going to do next?” Since this is the biggest transition in your life it’s definitely going to be the most stressful one.
It’s really easy to get caught up in the moment and give in to stress, particularly in today’s tumultuous economy with hardly any job opportunities. Anxiety can overwhelm you and the fear of the future can make you forget to look after your health; which should always be your number one priority.
What does post-graduation-stress do to you?

Stress affects the body in negative ways, both physically and mentally. To begin with studies have shown that the more stressed you are the more frequent you will have headaches and migraines [1]. Stress can even increase allergy flare ups, especially in the spring season when flowers are blooming and pollen is everywhere. In a recent study conducted, the group which had higher stress levels experienced more allergy flares compared to the group with little to no stress levels [2].  And finally, stress can weaken the body’s immunity [3]. Our immune system is consistently working with the immense task of protecting us from bacteria and viruses that we are exposed to everyday; however when stress levels rise higher than the body’s threshold, the long term effect of stress can negatively affect the immune system. Which is why if you’re really stressed you may find yourself catching a cold frequently. 
Dealing with stress…

  1. Make time for fun. Plan out days out with friends or family, or if you can, book a holiday to your favourite destination and take time out from your usual routine.  It will help you relax and avert your mind from stress.  
  2. Let it all out and complain to anyone that’s close to you. Bottling up your feelings can also increase your stress levels and be detrimental to your health so it’s better to get all the negative feelings out of your system.
  3. Don’t submit yourself to negative thoughts. Be sure that even if finding a suitable job is taking a long time, it will come no matter how long it takes but stressing about it won’t do anything but harm your health. Negative thoughts won’t yield positive results.
  4. Meditating and breathing deeply: breathing exercises help you to control yourself and give a feeling of inner peace.
  5.  Exercising:  You can walk, run, do yoga, anything to keep active and find a way to avert your concentration from thinking about the matters that stress you out.  
  6. Another notable health tip is to always start your day with breakfast. Starting your day with breakfast will set your body up for the day by giving you the right amount of energy and also make you feel productive and less lethargic. Most dieticians agree that breakfast is the most important meal of the day and can even enhance your mood and cognitive function and lower your stress levels.


Don’t compare your life with anyone…

After graduating you've got pretty much nothing to do apart from looking for work and filling out job applications. Now you have the rest of the day free to procrastinate, which then pulls you into Facebook and other social media websites where all your friends post updates of their lives, and you end up comparing yourself to them, but it’s a toxic and dangerous thing to do to yourself!  You might be convinced that their life is perfect and everyone is living the dream life whilst you’re struggling to get your foot in the door. You will end up feeling like the worst person on the entire planet and stress yourself even more. Comparing yourself to anyone is the worst thing you could do to yourself at any point of your life and you’ll always be unsatisfied.


Overall stress is never a good thing and its negative for your health but there’s always a way to not submit to stress and its pressures.  In between drafting covering letters, sending numerous job applications and then waiting for a potential employer to get back to you (and the disappointment when they don’t), you also have to think about your health and isolate yourself away from anything that makes you anxious and stressful. 

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Tuesday, December 23, 2014

Dark Chocolate Improves Vasodilation (Yay for lower blood pressure!)

Dark chocolate has many health benefits and one health benefit is that it can lower blood pressure, although there has been research on this before, a new study goes into studying its effect on endothelial cells (responsible for vasoconstriction of blood vessels). At least 30% of the English population have blood pressure and most of them might not even know they have it and have not yet been diagnosed.  

The endothelial cells are vital for cardiovascular function and the dysfunction of endothelial cells is one of the most precocious events in atherosclerotic process. Which is the main reason why this study was carried out on endothelial cells and taking the measurement of the flow-mediated dilation (FMD). The FMD measurement can be seen as a predictor of the incidence of cardiovascular events in adults with no prior cardiovascular diseases (CVD).


The Method 

A randomized and controlled trail was carried out, using 30 healthy young individuals, placed into 2 groups: Control Group (CG) and Intervention Group (IG). Within the Intervention group: the individuals were given 8g/daily of 70% dark chocolate for an entire month. All the individuals were submitted to two clinical assessments, basal and after one month of intervention, in which their weight, height, body mass index (BMI), Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP), Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR) and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) were assessed, glycaemia levels were also assessed. 


The Results 

Endothelial function improved in the IG after the 1 month flavonoid intake, with the FMD increasing from 14±5% (baseline) to 23±7% (post-intervention; p<0.001), with no significant differences in the CG. Only eight grams of dark chocolate per day were able to significantly improve endothelium-dependent vasodilation, which improved the endothelial function in the young individuals. 



Yay for dark chocolate and its blood pressure lowering effects! Only 8g of dark chocolate were able to improve endothelium function and improve vasodilation, even in the healthy individuals. Even though dark chocolate is bitter than milk chocolate but it is the best and healthiest option and in the long run it will have positive effects on your cardiovascular health. 

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References
[1]Dark chocolate intake improves endothelial function in young healthy people: a randomized and controlled trial
photo credit: Chocolate Reviews via photopin cc photo credit: sea turtle via photopin cc photo credit: Fatma S via photopin cc

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Saturday, December 20, 2014

Great News for Wikipedia Lovers


We were always warned at university about the reliability of Wikipedia and that we shouldn't use it for guidance when working on projects and/or coursework and we're recommended to use Google Scholar and Science Direct for scientific research. Because Wikipedia is an open online encyclopedia in which everyone and anyone can edit and add to the pages, its reliability isn't 100%.

However the good news is, is that the Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) have given access to the chemistry writers at Wikipedia access to their all their journals (gold accounts) so to ensure that every single piece of information on Wikipedia is correct and to update with all the latest updates in chemistry research. 

Donating 100 "RSC Gold" accounts to Wikipedia editors gives them access to the complete portfolio of RSC journals and databases. Andy Mabbett the RSC's Wikimedian in Residence commented to the Royal Society of Chemistry's blog "Royal Society of Chemistry journals are the first port of call for many scientists and Wikipedia is the first port of call for both students and lay people. It absolutely makes sense for the two to work together to share knowledge, freely, for the benefit of everyone".

This is great news for everyone who uses Wikipedia and especially students who depend on Wikipedia for information for their research and it's their first destination for information.


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References

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Tuesday, November 18, 2014

8 Facts about Coconut Water

The increasingly popular drink, coconut water, is getting good reviews for its elixir-like health benefits and its hydrating properties so what is there to know about coconut water…

1) Coconut water is rich
…in antioxidants and ions such as calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium, sodium, zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium and vitamins B6, C, and E, as well as vitamin K, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, and folate.





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Friday, November 14, 2014

Exam Drug Fails to Live up to its Expectations

Exam season is always a stressful time for students and every time it comes around everyone prepares in their own to make sure they can perform their best, even if it means taking performance enhancing drugs. There’s a prescription drug called Modafinil that can enhance your concentration. Personally I've never heard of anything like this till yesterday, the only drug I heard of at exam season is caffeine pills. Loads of students would take caffeine pills at exam season to try and stay up and revise or pull an all-nighter the day before the exam to cram in as much information as possible.  But sometimes that didn’t end up well because some students would end up taking too much caffeine pills and faint during the exam and subsequently need to be hospitalised for overdose.

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Wednesday, November 12, 2014

5 Health Myths Everyone Follows Today: Corrected!

The "3-second rule"

Say you've dropped a sweet on the floor so your friend shouts “Quick! Pick it up! 3 second rule!” Because apparently if you drop food on the floor, you have three mighty seconds to rescue it and it will still be pure and untouched by bacteria as it was before you dropped it.
Food dropped onto any contaminated surface, in this case the floor, has the potential to cause food poisoning and many other problems nobody wants and it was found that at least 20,000 UK residents seek hospital treatment for contaminated food case, a year, which could have been easily avoided.
It has also been scientifically proven that the 3-second rule or 5-second rule doesn’t exist and it is safer to just throw away whatever food you dropped on the floor. Better to be safe than sorry.

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