Tuesday, March 31, 2015

The Newest Way to Get Rid of Acne & Spots

It is everyone’s desire to have beautiful, clear skin but sometimes that’s not always possible. Especially in our teenage years spots start to appear and if you’re really unlucky it turns into acne.  Although acne can take a long time to go away, there are lot of treatments for it available today; and here’s the newest, method of acne treatment & prevention.

Pimples form when follicles get blocked by sebum, an oily, waxy substance secreted by sebaceous glands located adjacent to the follicle. Excretion of sebum is a natural process and functions to lubricate and waterproof the skin. Occasionally, however, the openings of the follicles (pores) get blocked, typically by bits of hair, skin, dirt or other debris mixed in with the sebum. Overproduction of sebum is also a problem, which can be caused by hormones or medications. Changes in the skin, such as its thickening during puberty, can also contribute to follicle blockage. Whatever the cause, the accumulating sebum holds bacteria, which results in the inflammation and local infection that’s called acne.

Samir Mitragotri, professor of chemical engineering at UCSB along with private medical device company: Sebacia have cooperated together to “establish the foundation of a novel therapy” Prof. Mitragotri said.

Utilising low-frequency ultrasound, it pushes gold-silica particles are delivered into the sebaceous gland thought the follicles, and are heated by the laser. Silica and gold particles are extremely tiny (one-hundredth of the width of a human hair). The heat deactivates the sebaceous glands by converting light to heat via a process called surface plasmon resonance. The sebum, pore-blocking substances and particles are excreted normally.  "If you deactivate these overproducing glands, you're basically treating the root cause of the acne," said Mitragotri.

This new technology is also the first time, which has been proved that it is possible to transfer drugs for years, to deliver the particles though the skin.

Published in the Journal of Controlled Release, this new research hopes to open a door for other treatment methods over conventional treatments. Selective photothermolysis, is a very useful method that does not irritate or dry the skin's surface. Additionally, it poses no risk of resistance or long-term side effects that can occur with antibiotics or other systemic treatments. This method is particularly suited to patients with advanced, severe or difficult-to-treat acne.


After rapidly going from concept to clinical trials there still need to be more trials on this method to detect any possibility of follicular damage and obviously its positives and negatives.

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Paithankar D, Hwang BH, Munavalli G, Kauvar A, Lloyd J, Blomgren R, Faupel L, Meyer T, & Mitragotri S (2015). Ultrasonic delivery of silica-gold nanoshells for photothermolysis of sebaceous glands in humans: Nanotechnology from the bench to clinic. Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society, 206, 30-36 PMID: 25747145

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Saturday, March 28, 2015

How to Protect Yourself from Sun Rays With An Umbrella

Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is an electromagnetic wave. It comes from the sun and travels to the surface of the Earth. While UVR is vital to human (it provides us with the essential vitamin, vitamin D), but it can also cause harm especially to the eye and skin such as burn, hyperpigmentation, photoaging skin, keratoconjunctivitis, stimulation of photodermatoses and cutaneous cancer.


This is why we need different methods of protection from the harmful and potentially damaging sun rays. The types of protection can be split into the two categories: Chemical protection (sunscreen) and Physical protection such as using hats, garments, sunglasses.



Umbrellas are also a great method of protection from the sun and one of the ways to protect yourself from UVR due to its convenience, availability as well as its ability to protect one from rain. However, there are only few studies on UVR protection efficacy of different types of umbrellas and no clear conclusions can be drawn.



A new study conducted by Vejakupta et al aimed to evaluate UVR photoprotection efficacies of umbrellas with different canvases (umbrellas with UVR-filter coating on the inner surface of the canvas, umbrellas with UVR-filter coating on the outer surface of the canvas and umbrellas with plain canvas) as well as umbrellas with different diameters (112 cm, 122 cm and 152 cm).



The final results show that all types of umbrellas do provide UVR photo protection efficacy. The study shows that umbrellas with different canvas material including both the UV-filter coating and different diameter of umbrellas could effectively protect the user from UVR without significant group difference in this study.



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Vejakupta, K., & Udompataikul, M. (2014). Umbrella with Ultraviolet Radiation Protection Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications, 04 (04), 228-233 DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2014.44031

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Friday, March 27, 2015

Scientist of the Week 4: Francis Crick

Biography:

Francis Crick born on the 8th June 1916 in Northampton, United Kingdom, graduated from UCL in 1937. During World War 2 he worked as a scientist for the Admiralty Research Laboratory, working on the design of magnetic and acoustic mines.

In 1940 Crick married Ruth Doreen Dodd. Their son, Michael F.C Crick is a scientist. They were divorced in 1947. In 1949 Crick married Odile Speed. They have two daughters, Gabrielle A. Crick and Jacqueline M.T. Crick.  The family lived in a house called the “The Golden Helix” appropriately named by Crick, and it made a good conversation topic with his friends.

In 1947 Crick made the transition from physics into biology, which he described as "almost as if one had to be born again." His early studies at Cambridge were supported by a studentship from the Medical Research Council (MRC).

In 1949 he joined the MRC Unit headed by Max Perutz, which subsequently became the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology. During this period he worked on the X-ray crystallography of proteins, obtaining his PhD in 1954.

In the beginning of 1951 a new friendship started between Crick & James Watson (who was 23 at the time). They were both fascinated by the essential query of how genetic information could be stored in molecular form, leading in 1953 to the proposal of the double-helical structure for DNA. Crick then concentrated on the biological implications of the structure of the DNA molecule, developing further insights into the genetic code − including the so called “central dogma” describing the flow of information from DNA to RNA to protein. Crick was made a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1959.

Crick worked at the University of Cambridge for 30 years up until 1977. For the rest of his career, Crick continued to work in the Salk Institute for biological studies, in La Jolla, California, USA, and also a professor at the University of California, San Diego.

Francis Crick was celebrated for his intelligence, openness to new ideas, and his collaborations with scientists working in different fields of expertise.

Key Research:

After gaining his studentship in the MRC, in 1949, He became a research student for the second time in 1950, as a member of Caius College, Cambridge, and obtained a PhD in 1954 on a thesis entitled ‘X-ray diffraction: polypeptides and proteins’.

During this period, Crick was studying and devised a theory of X-ray diffraction by a helix at the same time Linus Pauling and Robert Corey suggested the alpha- keratin pattern was due to alpha-helices coiled around each other.

Watson & Cricks friendship blossomed in 1951, and in the year 1953 the duo proposed the structure of the double-helical structure of DNA and a theory for its replication. Subsequently they suggested a general theory for the structure of small viruses.

Crick, in collaboration with Alex Rich, has proposed structures for polyglycine II and collagen and (with Alex Rich, D R Davies, and James Watson) a structure for polyadenylic acid.

Later, in collaboration with Sydney Brenner, Crick focused more on biochemistry and genetics leading to ideas about protein synthesis (the ‘adaptor hypothesis’), and the genetic code.

Nobel Peace Prizes:

Francis Crick was awarded one-third of The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1962 along with James Watson and Maurice Wilkins. All three were co-awarded the prize for their research on the identification of the structure of DNA and nucleic acids.

“Prize motivation:"for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material"


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References:
http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1962/crick-bio.html

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Monday, March 23, 2015

Zinc Lozenges Soothe Cold Symptoms

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Winter is coming to an end and last Friday was officially the first day of spring  (but if you're in England you probably didn't notice a difference; maybe the odd daffodil here and there but the weather is pretty much the same). So with the changes in weather comes cold & flu season, where it seems as if everyone's got a cold, and taking sick-days off school/work. 

Two scientists at the University of Helsinki: Harri Hemilä from Helsinki, Finland and Elizabeth Chalker from Sydney, Australia decided to study whether there are differences in the effect of zinc lozenges on different common-cold symptoms.Harri Hemilä from Helsinki, Finland and Elizabeth Chalker from Sydney, Australia decided to investigate whether there are differences in the effect of zinc lozenges on different common-cold symptoms. 

What are Zinc Lozenges?

Zinc lozenges contain zinc acetate, when you suck on a zinc lozenge, zinc acetate breaks down to release zinc 2+ ions, which are released into the saliva of the pharyngeal region where the levels are consequently high. 

How do zinc lozenges work?

Zinc has been shown to have anti-viral effects; a theory suggest that interferes with viral proliferation by inhibiting viral capsid (the outer layer of the virus) formation when the virus replicates. Another theory is that zinc interferes with binding and subsequent entry into cells by the virus. Therefore zinc has positive effects on the stimulating the immune system.





The results?

High dose zinc acetate lozenges shortened the duration of common-cold associated nasal discharge by 34%, nasal congestion by 37%, scratchy throat by 33%, and cough by 46%, according to the meta-analysis, published in the BMC Family Practice Journal. The research was conducted by a pair of scientists at the university of Helsinki. The effects of zinc do not discriminate between nasal symptoms or respiratory symptoms. 

Click here to read my post on how to keep the cold and flu at bay!



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References:

Image from HealthFitnessMag - Flu Medicines Image - Zinc Acetate Wiki - Zinc Lozenges  - BMC Journal 


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Friday, March 20, 2015

Scientist of the Week 3: Maud Leonora Menten



For this week’s Scientist of the Week segment, I have chosen: Maud Leonora Menten of the Michaelis-Menten equation famous for her core work in biochemistry, taught in college, used daily in biochemistry research and applications. She was amazing and relentlessly pursued her work despite many obstacles.

Biography:

Maud Menten was born March 20, 1879 in Port Lambton, Ontario, Canada and studied medicine at the University of Toronto (B.A. 1904, M.B. Physiology 1907, M.D. 1911). She was among the first women in Canada to earn a medical doctorate. She completed her thesis work at University of Chicago.



Miss Menten was woman who wore “Paris hats, blue dresses with stained-glass hues, and Buster Brown shoes.” She drove a Model T Ford through the University of Pittsburgh area for some 32 years and enjoyed many adventurous and artistic hobbies.

She was an extremely motivated and a hard-worker; she continued to work all her life until she was too sick to no longer work.  Menten was so dedicated to her work so she learnt to communicate in German and was able to communicate in a total of 6 languages throughout her life including Russian, French, German, Italian, and at least one Native-American language.

Key Research / Awards:

Miss Menten headed for Germany by ship, in the same year that the Titanic had sank, despite being advised not to. She was determined to work with Leonor Michaelis- the well-known, German, biochemist.  They worked together to solve the mystery of enzyme kinetics, studying the rates and mechanisms of enzymatic reactions. Together they devised the Michaelis-Menten Equation, the famous equation that is vital till today which calculates the rate of an enzyme reaction and is taught to all biochemistry undergraduates today.



After travelling from Germany to the USA, Miss Menten continued her PhD in 1916 worked at the University of Pittsburgh (She was awarded a professorship in 1950). She then went to become a pathologist at the Pittsburgh Children’s Hospital in 1926 where she studied histochemistry and paediatric pathology.

She’s credited for having conducted the first separation of proteins by electrophoresis, and she developed a staining method using azo dyes that’s still used in histochemistry today. In 1950 Menten retired and returned to Canada where she continued to work here she continued to do cancer research at the British Columbia Medical Research Institute till 1955.

Over her entire career she wrote and co-wrote about 100 research papers, many of which are historic contributions.

Nobel Peace Prize:

She may not have won one but she definitely deserved one!

“I’ve stirred them up, so now I can go.” - Maud Leonora Menten

References



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Tuesday, March 17, 2015

Saving Valuable Time: the Molecule-Making Machine

A new molecule making machine could imitate 3-D printing, making it fast, flexible and accessible to everyone. This machine can assemble small, complex molecules at the click of a mouse. This automated process has the potential to greatly speed up and enable new drug development and other technologies that rely on small molecules.

A team of chemists led by Martin D. Burke, at University of Illinois a team led by Martin D. Burke built the machine to imitate 3-D printer at a molecular level. They described the technology in a paper featured on the cover of the March 13 issue of Science.



"Small molecules" are a specific class of complex, compact chemical structures found throughout nature. They are very important in medicine -- most medications available now are small molecules -- as well as in biology as probes to uncover the inner workings of cells and tissues. But small molecules are also very difficult to produce in a laboratory, and it takes a highly experienced chemist to find out how make a certain small molecule before its properties could be understood. This makes drug research slow and hinders its development.

"Up to now, the bottleneck has been synthesis," Burke said. "There are many areas where progress is being slowed, and many molecules that pharmaceutical companies aren't even working on, because the barrier to synthesis is so high."

How do you take something very complex and make it as simple as possible?

The theory behind the machines is to break down the complex molecules into smaller building blocks that can be easily assembled.

To make the assembly process automated, Burke's group devised a simple catch-and-release method that adds one building block at a time, rinsing the excess away before adding the next one. They confirmed that their machine could build up to 14 different categories of small molecules.

"Dr. Burke's research has yielded a significant advance that helps make complex small molecule synthesis more efficient, flexible and accessible," said Miles Fabian of the National Institutes of Health's National Institute of General Medical Sciences, which partially funded the research. "It is exciting to think about the impact that continued advances in these directions will have on synthetic chemistry and life science research."

The automated synthesis technology has been licensed to REVOLUTION Medicines, Inc., a company that Burke co-founded that concentrates on creating new drugs based on small molecules found in nature. The company initially is focusing on anti-fungal medications, in which Burke's research has made a lot of progress.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y_0wC5kDN3s

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Saturday, March 14, 2015

Man Creates The First Ever Leaf That Turns Light and Water Into Oxygen

Artificial leaf technology is constantly expanding.

Coming from a silk lab in Tufts University, Julian Melchiorri is a scientist and artist who has introduced an artificial leaf that can undergo photosynthesis. This design was produced with the plan that it could light up the house and produce oxygen simultaneously.  

He has made this invention by suspending chloroplasts (the organelles required for photosynthesis) in a body produced from silk protein. The leaf then is able to absorb carbon dioxide from the air and produce oxygen as the product, as long as there is enough water and light to feed it.

Julian believes that his artificial leaf is not only light weight, but also extremely energy and light efficient.  

The Photosynthesis Equation:

6CO2 + 6H2O + (SUNLIGHT ENERGY) --> C6H12O6 + 6O2

This seems like a great idea but there is something missing from Julian’s design: Sugar. Plants produce oxygen and glucose as the product of photosynthesis. The glucose is used to feed the plant so it can complete its complex processes.  There is no explanation on the treatment of hydrogen and carbon dioxide.

Julian hopes this will be a great aid to NASA and space exploration. He also said “It could [also] be used for outdoor applications. So facades, ventilation systems. You can absorb air from outside, pass it through these biological filters and then bring oxygenated air inside.”

Another attempt at artificial leaves but different..

In 2011, Dan Nocera from Harvard University, USA released an artificial leaf which consisted of a silicon wafer coated on each side with a different catalyst (metal oxides) - one for water oxidation and one for reducing protons into hydrogen gas. Sunlight provided the energy to drive the reaction, which makes a simple but inefficient system for generating oxygen.

Nocera is still currently working on advancing his research in his company Sun Catalytix, which is backed by the multinational company Tata Group.  The company is looking to transfer the technology to nanoparticles which can be suspended in water. 




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Friday, March 13, 2015

Scientist of the Week 2: Ahmed Zewail

This weeks Scientist of the Week #SOTW is Ahmed Zewail, the famous, Egyptian scientist & Nobel laureate, for his amazing research in femtochemistry: studying chemical reactions across femtoseconds (1 fs= 10-15 seconds). 

Biography:

Born on February 26, 1946 in a city not so far from Alexandria, Egypt; Zewail “lived an enjoyable childhood”.  His family’s dream was to see Zewail achieve a high degree abroad and return to Egypt to become a university professor.  Zewail completed his degree in Alexandria University with First Class Honours and it is the same place where he realised his strong passion for science especially the physical sciences.  

Zewail then went onto complete his Masters and PhD in Alexandria University where he was employed as a demonstrator (“Moeid”) where he gave lectures to undergraduates.  He then travelled o the United States where he completed his PhD in the University of Pennsylvania with advisor Robin M. Hochstrasser. Zewail then moved to Berkeley, U.S.A to complete a post-doctoral fellowship at the University of California, Berkeley with advisor Charles B. Harris.

After completing his post-doc, Zewail was awarded a faculty appointment at the California Institute of Technology where he has been working ever since 1976. In 1990 he was made the first Linus Pauling Chair in Chemical Physics.

Key research / awards

Of the notable works that Zewail has worked through; is his work in femtochemistry, studying chemical reactions across femtoseconds (1 fs= 10-15 seconds).  Before the late 1980’s it was almost impossible to study the events that occur in a chemical reaction, however Zewail was able to view the motion of atoms and molecules based on new laser technology capable of producing light flashes just tens of femtoseconds in duration (a.k.a femtosecond spectroscopy).  

For his contributions to science and for his public service, Dr. Zewail has garnered honours from around the globe. Fifty Honorary Degrees in the sciences, arts, philosophy, law, medicine, and humane letters have been conferred on him, including those from Oxford University, Cambridge University, Peking University, École Normale Supérieure, Yale University, University of Pennsylvania, and Alexandria University.

Recent research

4D Microscopy:  Professor Zewail’s current research is focused on the structural dynamics in chemistry and biology with focus on the physics of elementary processes in complex systems. The main research is based in producing four-dimensional (4D) ultrafast electron microscopy and diffraction for atomic –scale visualization in space and time.  Together with spectroscopy and large-scale computations, the goal is to understand complexity and nature of physical, chemical and biological transformations.
Prof. Zewail also is devoted to giving public lectures to enhance awareness of the value of knowledge gained from fundamental research, and helping the population of developing countries through the promotion of science and technology for the betterment of society.

Nobel Peace Prize

At 5:40 in the morning on Tuesday, October 12, Ahmed Zewail got a phone call - it was the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences informing him he had won the 1999 Nobel Prize in chemistry. The citation reads, in part, that Zewail "is being rewarded for his pioneering investigation of fundamental chemical reactions, using ultra-short laser flashes on the time scale on which the reactions actually occur"...  Dr Zewail studied atoms and molecules in “slow motion” during a reaction and seen what actually happens when chemical bonds beak and new ones are created.

Described as the world’s fastest camera, this utilises laser flashes of such short duration that are at the time scale on which the reactions actually happen – femtoseconds (fs). One femtosecond is 10-15 seconds that is 0.000000000000001 seconds. This area of chemistry as named femtochemistry.

Femtochemistry helps us understand why certain chemical reactions take place but not others, and also determine the speed and yields of different reactions.  This will aid the future research into the mechanisms of life and how the medicines of the future should be produced.

“At the age of 21, as a Moeid, I believed that behind every universal phenomenon there must be beauty and simplicity in its description. This belief remains true today.”
-          Ahmed H. Zewail, Autobiography

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Wednesday, March 11, 2015

Why do we remember bad memories easier than good ones?

How many times have you found yourself recollecting a bad memory?
It doesn't even have to be a very bad memory,  it could be a sad moment, a moment which angered you or even an embarrassing moment. But it is definitely prominent in your mind.

All of these things could have happened years ago and you don't want to remember them but they still come back and haunt you from time to time.

But the question is why do we remember these bad memories more than good ones? 
Time to think out of the box By Frits Ahlefeldt


Bad outweighs the good

It turns out that negative memories are more likely to be remembered over positive ones in the brain because negative events pose a chance of "danger".  This makes the body more alert to negative thoughts because they are treated as a lesson to the person to help them prevent harm. Therefore we become extremely focused on the negative thoughts and it becomes much more difficult to recall the positive thoughts/memories.


Spiralling into depression 

Sometimes if negative thoughts occur frequently they can lead the person to significant psychological distress, causing a lot of depression and anxiety.

Brain Chemistry 

Serotonin is the chemical neurotransmitter that is produced by the body. Produced via a biochemical conversion process, serotonin is produced in the brain and in the gastrointestinal tract; however, the serotonin that is used in the brain is produced in the brain. The neurotransmitter influences your mood and with moderate levels of serotonin, one feels balanced and calm. Serotonin also plays an important role in good quality sleep and our sleep/wake cycle. 

Serotonin deficiency can cause depression characterises by very distressful thoughts (including bad memories) and feelings, anguish, pessimistic thoughts and feelings, low mood, feelings of worthlessness, suicidal thoughts and insomnia. 

Combating the Negativity & Serotonin boosters 

  • Lifting your mood; either through psychotherapy or self-induction, could increase levels of serotonin in the brain, if this method of treatment includes the interaction between serotonin synthesis and mood is a two-way relationship.
  • Exercise: exercise has an antidepressant effect, and some research has suggested that it can increase brain serotonin function.
  • Diet: foods that have higher levels of tryptophan than others could be linked to improved mood and cognition, possibly due to increased serotonin levels (such as chick peas).

On the other hand...

Posted in the Memory journal, there is a new report showing that good memories can actually outweigh the bad. For example, you could remember a nice holiday but disregard the plane delays that happened on your way to the destination. 

This phenomenon is called Fading Affect Bias (FAB). More in-depth studies on the FAB effect were conducted to see what the results are like around the world. To see if it was universal, Timothy Ritchie from the University of Limerick in Ireland decided to analyse data from samples collected by academics at six universities around the world.

In all, 2,400 autobiographical memories were included, from 562 individuals in 10 countries.These researchers had access to participants from many different English-speaking ethnic groups including African-Americans, Ghanaians, Germans, Native Americans and New Zealanders of both European descent and Maori/Pasifica backgrounds. The data from New Zealand and Ghana included just men and women under the age of 30 but others like the German and Irish samples included older participants. Of the unpleasant experiences, nearly 60% were forgotten - but only 42% of the pleasant memories had faded.

The subjects being studied were asked to recall some random, positive memories and some negative and also trying to give details of the time, location and sensory information. Those recalling their emotional responses to memories were asked to remember them again later after various time lapses - and rate how they felt about them. This is known as the initial effect and the current effect and the difference between them was measured. Finally, the researchers found that the FAB happened in each study, regardless of the cultural backgrounds of the participants.

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Ritchie TD, Batteson TJ, Bohn A, Crawford MT, Ferguson GV, Schrauf RW, Vogl RJ, & Walker WR (2015). A pancultural perspective on the fading affect bias in autobiographical memory. Memory (Hove, England), 23 (2), 278-90 PMID: 24524255

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Random question: Is the glass half full or half empty? Comment below!!!








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Friday, March 06, 2015

Scientist of the Week - Week One

Choosing a scientist to begin the first week of Scientist of the Week was difficult but after a lot of thinking and contemplating, I have chosen…………… Marie Curie! The first woman to win a Nobel peace prize.

Biography
Key Research
X-ray work during WW1
Nobel Peace Prizes
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Marie Curie, born in Warsaw on 7 November 1867, is a Polish-born physicist and chemist. Curie was the youngest of five children. She studied at Warsaw’s clandestine Floating University and began her scientific training in Warsaw.

Later in 1891, Curie’s sister offered her temporary accommodation in Paris and she immediately took up the offer and moved to Paris, France where she started her studies in Sorbonne University where she read physics and mathematics and earned higher degrees and conducted her subsequent scientific work.

In 1894 Marie met Pierre Curie in Paris (a scientist working in the city) and they married a year later. Pierre and Marie had two daughters; Irene (born 1898) and Eve (born 1904).
On 4 July 4 1934, at the Sancellemoz Sanatorium in Passy, France at the age of 66, Marie Curie died of pernicious anaemia, a condition she developed after years of exposure to radiation through her work.


The Discovery of Polonium and Radium

Six months after their marriage Marie Curie found the topic of her thesis: Uranium rays - carrying on research from a new discovery by Professor Henri Becquerel.
Marie Curie was the first person to give radioactivity its name. Before more radioactive elements had been discovered, only uranium was known.  The first lady of science obtained a mineral called pitchblende which is called so because it is black. Curie knew that it was radioactive and contained uranium but she wanted to understand what other element(s) was responsible for its radioactivity.  

Pierre joined Marie in her work with pitchblende where they ground and separated the different elements present and eventually they extracted a black powder, three hundred and thirty times more radioactive than uranium, which they called Polonium (atomic number 84). Marie named the newly discovered element, Polonium after her home country, Poland.
In 1898 the Curies published strong evidence for the discovery of Radium, even though they didn't have any sample for it. Marie Curie then bought several tonnes of uranium-extracted pitchblende and started to extract tiny quantities of radium. In 1902 Marie finally isolated radium after a long and grueling journey.


In World War 1, Marie Curie worked to develop small, mobile X-ray units that could be used to diagnose injuries near the battlefront. She worked with her daughter Irene, then aged 17, at casualty clearing stations close to the front line, X-raying wounded men to locate fractures, bullets and shrapnel.

Marie Curie was awarded a Nobel Peace Prize in 1903 in physics with husband Pierre Curie and jointly with Prof. Henri Becquerel (for their work on radiation phenomena) and again 1911 in chemistry (for discovering the element Polonium and Radium), making her the first woman in science history to ever win the Nobel Peace Prize.

Marie Curie definitely deserves to be the first Scientist of the Week for not only her hard work in radiation (and sacrificing her health for research) but also for becoming an outspoken advocate for women in the sciences.

“It is my earnest desire that some of you should carry on this scientific work and keep for your ambition the determination to make a permanent contribution to science.”

-          Marie Curie

References

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Monday, March 02, 2015

Amazing Science Images Courtesy of SciArt

[(Update: On Monday, 4,893 tweets were shared with the #SciArt hashtag; the first 3 days have totaled 11,695 tweets! Results generated from Topsy.com. Results from Symbiartic )]

As of March 1st, the Symbiartic team aspires to boost the number of images available within science communication and culture; so everyone is invited to join the hashtag #SciArt on  twitter.

So far there have been hundreds of thousand of tweets dedicated to #SciArt which has made it one of the top trending topics on twitter. 



ScientificAmerican blog imagines:


"IF, for 1 week, half the people on that list tweeted 3 pieces of art, and retweeted others at least 5 times, all in one day. That’s  1,600 tweets containing #SciArt per day; 11,200 in a week.
That will cause people to notice. Editors, journalists, researchers, educators, and maybe beyond." 

The ScientificAmerican blog has more information here to help you find out more and join the SciArt twitter storm. 


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